The term addiction refers to the uncontrollable use of drugs/substances resulting in various deleterious physical and psychological problems. The drugs usually have a direct effect on the brain. There are two main purposes for which the drugs are primarily used:
The individual develops a habit of abusing the drug as it serves as a way of leaving the person in a world free of tensions and full of pleasures. Due to these rewarding effects of drugs on the brain, the individual is compelled to engage in repeated use. Individuals age 18-24 have a greater likelihood to become involved in illicit use of the drug. The following figure gives a pictorial description that how the individuals indulge in the use of a drug and its related effects:
The main symptoms of addiction can be clustered around four domains:
The following are the drugs that are commonly responsible for resulting in various psychological disorders:
There are numerous mental health consequences of illicit drug addiction. These drugs may serve as a causation factor of various disorders. These drug-induced disorders are usually severe, short term, but sometimes these disorders may persist. The following table gives a brief overview of the drugs that are likely to induce mental disorders:
The following are the factors that are likely to contribute towards developing a physiological dependency for a substance/ drug.
In genetic factors, studies have shown that relatives of drinkers have higher rates of alcohol abuse. The twin studies have also revealed that genetic factors played a great role in disorders related to substance abuse. Genes by interacting with the environment make the individual more susceptible to addiction as it has been found that alcohol and smoking problems among adolescents were higher among those teens that had a large number of peers who drank.
Among the neurobiological factors, it has been found disturbances in dopamine systems make some individuals susceptible to develop drug dependency. The dopamine system is linked to pleasure and reward, becomes supersensitive not only to the direct effects of drugs but also to the cues associated with drugs (e.g., needles used for injecting drugs or rolling paper, etc.). This oversensitivity to cues induces craving, and the individual does anything to obtain the drug. The transition from liking to intense craving is regulated by dopamine pathways in the brain, which is responsible for maintaining the addiction.
In psychological factors, two main elements are responsible for substance/drug addiction. The first one is mood alteration and the second one is the personality factors. The mood alteration has a maintaining effect on addiction. The individual use drug as a way of enhancing the positive mood and eliminating the negative one. In this way, addiction behavior is reinforced. In regard to personality factors, high levels of negative emotionality, constraint from the environment and conservative moral standards have an important role in substance abuse.
Among the socio-cultural factors, the peers, parents, media, and cultural norms about acceptable behavior played a significant role in an individual’s interest and access towards drugs.
The challenge in the treatment of substance-related disorders is a recurrent relapse. The following are the steps that are followed in the treatment of drug-induced disorders.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is frequently being used in the treatment of a drug-induced disorder. Following is the 4-step program of CBT for substance/ drug abusers:
K.H. 24-year-old male, unmarried plumber, had a previous history of heroin use for the past 3 years. He first tried heroin during his time when he was going to Karachi for the shipment of goods with his fellows. Due to a lack of control over heroin use he was removed from his job a year later. He began to steal money and valuables to fulfill his need for the drug, due to which his father asked him to, leave the house. He then began living on the street and started begging for money to support his habit. Over the years, K. H. had a tremendous weight loss and became quite malnourished. He was 6 feet tall but his weight was only 65 kilograms. Food wasn’t a priority on most days. Looking at his miserable situation he was taken by one of his friends’ to a rehabilitation center, but the doctor asked him to remain free of heroin in order to be admitted. The patient was able to resist his urge for a day or two, but then withdrawal symptoms began in the form of nausea, vomiting and body aches thus making it too difficult to resist. Staying under the strict surveillance of friends he failed to have the drug again and gained admittance to the addiction ward. The medications were given that help in overcoming his discomfort caused due to withdrawal signs. Along with the medications, K.H. started visiting the psychologist for therapeutic that further aided his improvement by the use of cognitive therapy. Now he was hopeful that he would change his habit for the betterment of himself.